|Aim||The objective of this experiment is to measure the internal diameter, depth, and volume of a given beaker/calorimeter using vernier callipers with accuracy and precision.|
|Materials Required||Vernier callipers|
|Theory||The least count of a measuring instrument is the smallest measurement that can be accurately read or measured by the instrument. It is also known as the resolution of the instrument.|
In the case of a vernier caliper, the least count is determined by the number of divisions on the Vernier scale and the main scale. The main scale on a vernier caliper typically has divisions of 1 mm, while the Vernier scale has divisions that are slightly smaller than 1 mm.
The formula to calculate the least count of a vernier caliper is:
Least count = Main scale division / Number of divisions on the Vernier scale
For example, if a vernier caliper has 1 mm divisions on the main scale and 10 divisions on the Vernier scale, the least count would be:
Least count = 1 mm / 10 = 0.1 mm
Therefore, the least count of this vernier caliper would be 0.1 mm. This means that the instrument can measure distances with a precision of 0.1 mm or 0.01 cm.
|Procedure||1 .Clean the surface of the beaker/calorimeter using paper or cloth.|
2 .Measure the internal diameter of the beaker/calorimeter by opening the jaws of the vernier callipers and adjusting them to the distance across the widest part of the opening. Carefully close the jaws until they lightly touch the inner surface of the beaker/calorimeter. Record the measurement in millimeters.
3 .Measure the depth of the beaker/calorimeter by opening the jaws of the vernier callipers and adjusting them to the distance from the rim of the beaker/calorimeter to the bottom. Carefully close the jaws until they lightly touch the inner surface of the beaker/calorimeter. Record the measurement in millimeters.
4 .Calculate the volume of the beaker/calorimeter using the formula: Volume = π x (diameter/2)^2 x depth where π is the mathematical constant pi, diameter is the internal diameter of the beaker/calorimeter, and depth is the depth of the beaker/calorimeter.
5 .Fill the beaker/calorimeter with water up to a certain level and record the initial volume of water in a measuring cylinder.
6 .Heat the water in the beaker/calorimeter to a certain temperature and record the time taken to heat up the water to the required temperature using a stopwatch.
7 .Calculate the heat absorbed by the water using the formula: Heat absorbed = Mass of water x Specific heat capacity x Temperature rise where mass of water is the volume of water in grams, specific heat capacity of water is 4.18 J/g°C, and temperature rise is the difference between the final temperature and the initial temperature of water.
8 .Calculate the calorimeter constant using the formula: Calorimeter constant = (Heat absorbed by water)/(Temperature rise x Volume of calorimeter) where the volume of the calorimeter is calculated using the formula in step 4.
9 .Calculate the specific heat capacity of a metal or any other substance placed in the calorimeter using the formula: Specific heat capacity of substance = (Heat absorbed by substance)/(Mass of substance x Temperature rise) where the heat absorbed by substance is calculated 10 .using the formula: Heat absorbed by substance = (Mass of substance x Specific heat capacity of substance x Temperature rise) + (Calorimeter constant x Temperature rise)
|Observation and Result||Observations: Record the readings from the main scale and vernier scale of the vernier callipers for each measurement. Record the initial volume of water in the measuring cylinder, the time taken to heat up the water in the beaker/calorimeter, and the final temperature of the water.|
Calculate the average internal diameter and depth of the beaker/calorimeter by adding the three measurements and dividing the sum by three.
Calculate the volume of the beaker/calorimeter using the formula in step 4.
Calculate the heat absorbed by the water in step 7.
Calculate the calorimeter constant in step 8.
Calculate the specific heat capacity of the substance in step 9.
Results: The average internal diameter and depth of the beaker/calorimeter were determined to be [insert values and units]. The volume of the beaker/calorimeter was calculated to be [