|Aim||The aim of this experiment is to find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravitational pull of the earth and to study its relationship with the angle of inclination (θ) by plotting a graph between force and sin θ.|
|Apparatus Required||A roller|
A flat inclined plane
A set of weights
A spring balance
|Theory||When an object is placed on an inclined plane, it experiences two forces – its weight and a normal force from the plane. The weight of the object can be resolved into two components – one parallel to the plane and the other perpendicular to the plane. The component of weight parallel to the plane is responsible for the object’s movement along the plane, and is given by:|
F = mg sin θ
where F is the force acting on the object along the inclined plane, m is the mass of the object, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and θ is the angle of inclination of the plane.
In this experiment, we will place a roller on a flat inclined plane and measure the force acting on it along the plane at different angles of inclination. We will then plot a graph between the force and sin θ to study their relationship.
|Procedure||Place the inclined plane on a level table or floor.|
Place the roller on the inclined plane and ensure that it is not moving.
Attach the spring balance to the roller and measure the force required to prevent the roller from rolling down the plane.
Record the force in a table.
Adjust the angle of inclination of the plane using the protractor and measure the force required to prevent the roller from rolling down the plane.
Repeat steps 4-5 for different angles of inclination.
Using the data obtained, plot a graph of force against sin θ.
Draw the best-fit straight line through the graph.
Measure the gradient of the graph. The gradient of the graph represents the value of (mg), which is the force due to gravitational pull acting on the roller.
|Observation and Result||Result: The result of the experiment is the downward force acting on the roller due to gravitational pull of the earth. We will also obtain a graph that represents the relationship between the force and sin θ.|
Observation: During the experiment, we observe that as the angle of inclination of the plane increases, the force required to prevent the roller from rolling down the plane also increases. By plotting the values of force and sin θ on a graph, we observe a linear relationship between these variables. The slope of this line can be used to determine the value of (mg), which is the force due to gravitational pull acting on the roller.
We also observe that the force acting on the roller along the inclined plane is less than its weight due to the component of weight perpendicular to the plane being balanced by the normal force from the plane. The force acting on the roller along the inclined plane is given by (mg sin θ), where (mg) is the force due to gravitational pull and sin θ is the component of weight parallel to the plane. This experiment demonstrates the concept of resolving the weight of an object into components along and perpendicular to an inclined plane.